Project: Advanced Side Impact Dummy: Biomechanics and Evaluation (SIBER)

Reference: S0015/VF

Last update: 23/06/2004 12:20:01


The principal objective is to gain a greater understanding of side impact injuries to aid the development of a more advanced side impact dummy. This is driven by the need to improve the current EuroSID-1 and ES-2 dummies and to develop a harmonised world-wide dummy that can be used in more than one regulatory test procedure.

The project will address four main work areas:

* a study analysing accidents to identify where the latest safety standards have reduced injury and where there is a need for further improvement;
* a biomechanical test programme to address areas of deficient knowledge of injury causation as identified by previous research;
* evaluation of future advanced side impact dummies for use in vehicle design and regulatory approval; and
* development of specifications for dummy enhancements.


This project will support the UK's contribution to the development of a new advanced side impact dummy known as "WorldSID" via participation in a collaborative project set up under the European Commission's 5th Framework programme.

The work is to include accident analysis to determine the most important types of injury and their mechanisms.

These and human tolerance to those injuries will also be explored by computer modelling.


TRL Limited
Crowthorne House, Nine Mile Ride, Wokingham, Berkshire, RG40 3GA
+44 (0)1344 773131

Contract details

Cost to the Department: £227,932.00

Actual start date: 18 September 2001

Actual completion date: 26 May 2004


PR/SE/552/02. Thorax Sensitivity and Heidelberg Sled Test Biofidelity Evaluation of the WorldSID Dummy
Author: TRL Ltd
Publication date: 01/07/2002
Source: Contact

03-S033. WorldSID Prototype Biofidelity and Sensitivity Evaluation (Stapp Car Crash Journal Volume 47)
Author: Stapp Association
Publication date: 31/10/2003
Source: Contact:

PR/SE/959/03. Lower Limb Injury Study and Risk Review
Author: TRL Ltd
Publication date: 01/06/2003
Source: Contact:

PR/SE/751/03. SIBER Annual Report 2002-2003
Author: TRL Ltd
Publication date: 30/04/2003
Source: Contact:

PR/SE/842/03. Biofidelity Evaluation of the Modified ES-2 Back Plate and Rib Extensions
Author: TRL Ltd
Publication date: 30/05/2003
Source: Contact:

PR/SE/910/04. Temperature Sensitivity and Biofidelity Evaluation of the Pre-Production WorldSID Dummy
Author: TRL Ltd
Publication date: 31/01/2004
Source: Contact:

PR/SE/959/04. Lower Limb Injury Study and Risk Review
Author: TRL Ltd
Publication date: 01/05/2004
Source: Contact:

Summary of results

  1. The contractor carried out testing of both the alpha prototype and the pre-production dummy. The results from the tests have contributed to the field of knowledge on this dummy and raised a number of concerns that will need to be addressed before the dummy will be suitable for regulatory testing. They identified the sensitivity of the dummy ribs to the angle of impact which was felt to be non biofidelic. The Heidleberg sled test showed the thorax to be close to the required corridors for low speed and within the corridors for high-speed impacts. The pelvis performance was outside the corridors although it was a marked improvement over ES-2. These tests also highlighted the fragile nature of some of the dummy components. The contractor carried out certification tests on the pre-production dummy and identified a number changes to be made to allow proper certification. They also identified that the dummy is more sensitive to temperature variations than expected and suggested changes to the test set-up to allow for this. They undertook further biofidelity tests on the pre-production dummy, using requirements developed by Wayne State University (WSU) and the Highway Safety Research Institute (HSRI). Again they noted where the dummy fails to meet the criteria and fed that information back into the development group. All of the contractors concerns with the dummy were reported back to the working group and they ensured that their concerns were noted at the sign off meeting for the dummy.

    The contractor reviewed available accident databases and selected two accidents that were suitable for reconstruction. The data necessary to carry out reconstruction tests were supplied to BAST who was responsible for the test work.

    Lower Limb Injury Risk Review
    Due to the difficulty comparing different studies the review could often establish only a broad indication of the situation. Lower limb injuries in side impacts were felt to contribute around one third of the injuries suffered in this impact configuration. In the UK they were the second most common injury at the AIS 2 and 3 level. The cause of these injuries was considered to be generally intrusion (57% in the UK). Lower limb and pelvis injuries were also considered to be a more frequent cause of disability than head injuries. Based on CCIS data the cost of lower limb injuries in the UK is 258 million Euros a year.

    ES-2 Rib extensions
    The Heidleberg sled tests showed that the biofidelity of the modified ES-2 was comparable with the standard model although there were some changes to the V*C and TTI values. In pendulum impact tests to the ribs it was found that there was some changes in the initial rib acceleration due partly to the increased mass of the rib but also because the ribs were not fitted with the correct foam padding. The rib extensions were found to make the ribs more sensitive to the angle of impact, from the rear. It was felt that full-scale tests would be required to confirm if this is a problem. The results of these tests were to be used if necessary to support the introduction of ES-2 into regulatory testing.