Project: DfT Aviation Emissions Technical Advice and Research

Reference: AED 0802

Last update: 08/08/2013 10:41:22

Objectives

To provide policy-relevant support to DfT covering areas of climate change and air quality in relation to aviation to support policy development, enquiries and ministerial business.

To provide expert technical capability in support of DfT objectives for the ICAO CAEP groups MODTF, FESG, WG3, MBMTF and support for the ECAC/ANCAT meetings, EC meetings, and CAEP SG meetings.

To carry out specific project-related work in areas of climate change and air quality in relation to aviation, for example in the areas of fuel efficiency, emissions trading, global emissions of CO2 and NOx, and uncertainties associated with contrail and cirrus clouds from aviation.

Description

The aim of the Aviation Directorate is to develop a long-term framework that will maximise the beneficial aspects of aviation and minimise the negative ones. Of direct relevance to this project is the need for technical expertise in specified areas so that increased consumer benefits are delivered alongside environmental protection and ensuring that the aviation industry meets its environmental costs.

There is also a specific requirement to obtain evidence in order to evaluate progress toward the Directorate's objectives and also those laid out in the Government's 2003 Air Transport White Paper.

Concern about climate change and poor air quality resulting from aviation emissions gives rise to numerous reports, parliamentary matters, local campaigns, international dialogues, and conferences. These require advice and technical support to enable us to keep the debate moving forward. Our requirement is for advice and expert support to better understand the design and performance characteristics of current and future gas turbines and how to model them.

Contractor(s)

AEA Technology Environment
Harwell Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QJ
+44 (0)1235 432201

Contract details

Cost to the Department: £720,000.00

Actual start date: 01 April 2008

Actual completion date: 30 June 2010

Summary of results

  1. Founded on 50 years research, testing and advice to government in civil aviation, QinetiQ provides advice and research to the Department for Transport on commercial aviation emissions. The work is focussed upon activities within the International Civil Aviation organisation's Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection (ICAO CAEP) but also includes advice as required on UK and European aviation emissions issues.

    Below are quarterly reports

    Aviation Emissions - Understanding and Reducing Environmental Effects
    QinetiQ work for Dept for Transport AED
    April to Jun 2008


    ICAO CAEP work during the period of this report involved technical input to the Working Groups on Operations, Emissions and Modelling. The CAEP Operations Group are providing guidance on calculation of emissions around airports and QinetiQ have introduced a number of the improved methods developed during the Heathrow sustainable development project for inclusion in the guidance. Where these methods are especially technical, these are passed to the CAEP Emissions technical group for assessment. On this group QinetiQ are working with other governments, agencies and stakeholders to evaluate the technical feasibility of tightening the regulations on NOx emissions. NOx affects both climate and local air quality. Of growing importance is the interdependency of CO2 emissions, other emissions such as NOx and noise; gains in one can mean deterioration in another. During the last few weeks, the technical scope for NOx improvements and the interdependences have been agreed and this data will now be modelled to determine the relative costs and benefits.

    This modelling is carried out by the CAEP Modelling and Database Task Force. On behalf of the DfT, QinetiQ provide management and secretarial services for this group. Previous CAEP modelling has been carried out by one Member State and by manufacturers. Initially led by DfT, European States and Agencies have submitted a number of advanced models for use by CAEP in policy evaluation. MODTF is evaluating these models.

    In addition to CAEP work, QinetiQ provides UK support to the US-based SAE A-21 and E-31 groups which provide noise, emissions and performance modelling methods and emissions measurements methods, aiming to have internationally agreed standards.

    Finally, work under the contract includes occasional research. QinetiQ have recently delivered a study on the environmental effects of a potential supersonic business jet, based on assessment and modelling of emerging types.

    Aviation Emissions - Understanding and Reducing Environmental Effects
    QinetiQ work for Dept for Transport AED
    July to Sep 2008

    Founded on 50 years research, testing and advice to government in civil aviation, QinetiQ provides advice and research to the Department for Transport on commercial aviation emissions. The work is focussed upon activities within the International Civil Aviation organisation's Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection (ICAO CAEP) but also includes advice as required on UK and European aviation emissions issues.

    ICAO CAEP work during the period of this report involved technical input to the Working Groups on Operations, Emissions and Modelling. The CAEP Operations Group are providing guidance on calculation of emissions around airports and QinetiQ have introduced a number of the improved methods developed during the Heathrow sustainable development project for inclusion in the guidance. Where these methods are especially technical, these are passed to the CAEP Emissions technical group for assessment. On this group QinetiQ are working with other governments, agencies and stakeholders to evaluate the technical feasibility of tightening the regulations on NOx emissions. NOx affects both climate and local air quality. Of growing importance is the interdependency of CO2 emissions, other emissions such as NOx and noise; gains in one can mean deterioration in another. Over the past months, data has been prepared for assessing these interdependencies in the context of a potential tightening of the CAEP NOx emissions standards. Modelling is expected to start in October 2008. In parallel, CAEP are developing forecasts of air traffic against which the modelling and technical groups will be developing scenarios of technology and operational improvements for the next 25 years, to provide estimates of aviation noise and emissions over that period. Modelling is expected to start in November 2008. QinetiQ have played a significant role in ensuring that both modest and challenging technology scenarios are modelled, consistent with the increasing attention on aviation as a potential significant future contributor to climate change.

    This modelling is carried out by the CAEP Modelling and Database Task Force. On behalf of the DfT, QinetiQ provide management and secretarial services for this group. Previous CAEP modelling has been carried out by one Member State and by manufacturers. Initially led by DfT, European States and Agencies have submitted a number of advanced models for use by CAEP in policy evaluation. MODTF is evaluating these models and using them in the major modelling exercises described above.

    In addition to CAEP work, QinetiQ provides UK support to the US-based SAE A-21 and E-31 groups which provide noise, emissions and performance modelling methods and emissions measurements methods, aiming to have internationally agreed standards. The challenge here is to develop publicly available emissions calculation methods which are practical in terms of using available data whilst being as close as possible to manufacturers' methods. QinetiQ have played a key role in moving forward the techniques being use din these methods and standards.

    Aviation Emissions - Understanding and Reducing Environmental Effects
    QinetiQ work for Dept for Transport AED
    Oct to Dec 2008


    ICAO CAEP work during the period of this report involved technical input to the Working Groups on Operations, Emissions and Modelling.

    The CAEP Operations Group are providing guidance on calculation of emissions around airports and QinetiQ have introduced a number of the improved methods developed during the Heathrow sustainable development project for inclusion in the guidance. The guidance is expected to be published after the CAEP/8 meeting in 2010.

    On the CAEP Emissions technical group, QinetiQ are working with other governments, agencies and stakeholders to evaluate the technical feasibility of tightening the regulations on NOx emissions. NOx affects both climate and local air quality. Of growing importance is the interdependency of CO2 emissions, other emissions such as NOx and noise. Data has been prepared for assessing these interdependencies in the context of a potential tightening of the CAEP NOx emissions standards. Modelling is underway to allow consideration of the cost effectiveness of tightening the regulation by CAEP/8 in 2010.

    In addition, CAEP are developing forecasts of air traffic against which the modelling and technical groups will be developing scenarios of technology and operational improvements for the next 25 years, to provide estimates of aviation noise and emissions over that period. Modelling is underway with QinetiQ providing Greenhouse gas emissions calculations using the AERO2k global inventory tool.

    This modelling is carried out by the CAEP Modelling and Database Task Force. On behalf of the DfT, QinetiQ provide management and secretarial services for this group. Initially led by DfT, European States and Agencies have submitted a number of advanced models for use by CAEP in policy evaluation. MODTF is evaluating these models and using them in the major modelling exercises described above.

    In addition to CAEP work, QinetiQ provides UK support to the US-based SAE A-21 and E-31 groups which provide noise, emissions and performance modelling methods and emissions measurements methods, aiming to have internationally agreed standards. The challenge here is to develop publicly available emissions calculation methods which are practical in terms of using available data whilst being as close as possible to manufacturers' methods. QinetiQ have played a key role in moving forward the techniques being used in these methods and standards. Significant work is being undertaken on the measurement of particulates. Until these can be reliably measured, it is not possible to frame any useful source regulation relating to the tiny (
    In related work, QinetiQ have produced a report for the Climate Change Committee entitled "Aviation CO2 Emissions Abatement Potential from Technology Innovation" for Climate Change Committee. It was published in Dec 2008 and is available at http://www.theccc.org.uk/reports/supporting-research/. This report focuses on global aviation, not just UK.


    Aviation Emissions - Understanding and Reducing Environmental Effects
    QinetiQ work for Dept for Transport AED
    Apr to Jun 2009


    ICAO CAEP work during the period of this report involved technical input to the Working Groups on Operations, Emissions and Modelling.

    The CAEP Operations Group are providing guidance on calculation of emissions around airports and QinetiQ have introduced a number of the improved methods developed during the Heathrow sustainable development project for inclusion in the guidance. The guidance is expected to be published after the CAEP/8 meeting in 2010.

    On the CAEP Emissions technical group, QinetiQ are working with other governments, agencies and stakeholders to evaluate the technical feasibility of tightening the regulations on NOx emissions. NOx affects both climate and local air quality. Of growing importance is the interdependency of CO2 emissions, other emissions such as NOx and noise. Data has been prepared for assessing these interdependencies in the context of a potential tightening of the CAEP NOx emissions standards. Modelling of the emissions and noise changes is complete and now awaits the cost effectiveness calculations to inform CAEP on potential tightening of the regulation at the CAEP meeting in 2010. The question of the feasibility of an aircraft CO2 standard is also being examined following pressure from the US and many NGOs. While fuel costs have always provided considerable incentive to minimise fuel burn (and therefore CO2), the political will for a CO2 standard will pose a considerable challenge for technologists and policymakers. QinetiQ will provide analysis and input to support development of a practical and beneficial standard.

    CAEP have developed forecasts of future air traffic, technology and operational improvements to allow modelling of aviation scenarios for the next 25 years and beyond. This information has been provided to GIACC to inform their strategic deliberations on aviation's future in relation to climate change. QinetiQ provided significant input of technology improvement potential and greenhouse gas emissions calculations using the AERO2k global inventory tool.

    In addition, on behalf of the DfT, QinetiQ provide management and secretarial services for the CAEP Modelling and Database Task Force.

    Beyond the direct CAEP work, QinetiQ provides UK support to the US-based SAE A-21 and E-31 groups which provide noise, emissions and performance modelling methods and emissions measurements methods, aiming to have internationally agreed standards. The challenge here is to develop publicly available emissions calculation methods which are practical in terms of using available data whilst being as close as possible to manufacturers' methods. QinetiQ have played a key role in moving forward the techniques being used in these methods and standards. Significant work is being undertaken on the measurement of particulates. Until these can be reliably measured, it is not possible to frame any useful source regulation relating to the tiny (
    In related work, QinetiQ have produced a report for the Climate Change Committee entitled "Aviation CO2 Emissions Abatement Potential from Technology Innovation" for Climate Change Committee. It was published in Dec 2008 and is available at http://www.theccc.org.uk/reports/supporting-research/. This report focuses on global aviation, not just UK. Aviation CO2 scenarios to 2050 have also been evaluated and reported to DfT in support of the UK build up to the Copenhagen Summit at the end of 2009.


    Aviation Emissions - Understanding and Reducing Environmental Effects
    QinetiQ work for Dept for Transport AED
    Jul to Sep 2009


    ICAO CAEP work during the period of this report involved technical input to the Working Groups on Operations, Emissions and Modelling.

    The CAEP Operations Group are providing guidance on calculation of emissions around airports and QinetiQ have introduced a number of the improved methods developed during the Heathrow sustainable development project for inclusion in the guidance. The guidance is expected to be published after the CAEP/8 meeting in 2010.

    On the CAEP Emissions technical group, QinetiQ are working with other governments, agencies and stakeholders to evaluate the technical feasibility of tightening the regulations on NOx emissions. NOx affects both climate and local air quality. Modelling of the emissions and noise changes resulting from a range of potential regulation changes is complete and now awaits the cost effectiveness calculations to inform CAEP on potential tightening of the NOx regulation at the CAEP meeting in 2010.

    The scope for a potential standard for CO2 emissions is also under urgent assessment within CAEP. Such a standard is a major technical challenge and QinetiQ have provided data to CAEP on the proportion of aviation CO2 potentially encompassed by various categories of aircraft. It is likely that a regulation initially addressing aircraft types which are the major CO2 contributors will be the most expeditious in terms of early and successful application. It is recognised within CAEP that a CO2 standard is only one of a number of measures needed to address future commercial aviation CO2 emissions.

    With considerable input from QinetiQ (and its predecessors), CAEP and SAE developed the First Order Approximation (FOA3) for estimating PM emissions from aircraft main engines. This widely adopted method is just what is says - an approximation. Considerable research in US and more recently in Europe has recently been devoted to providing more data to improve the understanding of engine PM emissions, including extension of the FOA method to aircraft auxiliary power units. QinetiQ have taken part in the European research and analysis of the results is underway to seek improvements to the FOA and therefore to estimates of aircraft PM emissions.

    In addition, on behalf of the DfT, QinetiQ provide management and secretarial services for the CAEP Modelling and Database Task Force.

    Beyond the direct CAEP work, QinetiQ provides UK support to the US-based SAE A-21 and E-31 groups which provide noise, emissions and performance modelling methods and emissions measurements methods, aiming to have internationally agreed standards. The challenge here is to develop publicly available emissions calculation methods which are practical in terms of using available data whilst being as close as possible to manufacturers' methods. QinetiQ have played a key role in moving forward the techniques being used in these methods and standards. Significant work is being undertaken on the measurement of particulates. Until these can be reliably measured, it is not possible to frame any useful source regulation relating to the tiny (
    In related work, QinetiQ have produced a report for DfT covering aviation CO2 scenarios to 2050. This work is in support of the UK build up to the Copenhagen Summit at the end of 2009.

    Aviation Emissions - Understanding and Reducing Environmental Effects
    QinetiQ work for Dept for Transport AED
    Oct to Dec 2009


    ICAO CAEP work during the period of this report primarily involved preparation of and commenting on working papers for the triennial CAEP/8 meeting in February 2010. Briefs have also been prepared to assist in developing a common European position for CAEP.

    The CAEP Operations Group are providing guidance on calculation of emissions around airports and QinetiQ have introduced a number of the improved methods developed during the Heathrow sustainable development project for inclusion in the guidance. The guidance is expected to be published after the CAEP/8 meeting in February 2010.

    On the CAEP Emissions technical group, QinetiQ have worked with other governments, agencies and stakeholders to evaluate the technical feasibility of tightening the regulations on NOx emissions. Modelling of the emissions and noise changes resulting from a range of potential regulation changes is complete and will be presented to CAEP/8 alongside the cost analysis in February 2010.

    The scope for a potential standard for CO2 emissions is also under urgent assessment within CAEP. Such a standard is a major technical challenge and QinetiQ have provided data to CAEP on the proportion of aviation CO2 potentially encompassed by various categories of aircraft. It is recognised within CAEP that a CO2 standard is only one of a number of measures needed to address future commercial aviation CO2 emissions.

    In addition, on behalf of the DfT, QinetiQ provide management and secretarial services for the CAEP Modelling and Database Task Force. The last meeting before CAEP/8 has been held and papers agreed for submission to CEAP on analysis of a tightening to the engine NOx Standard on model evaluation and on trends in aviation emissions through to 2036. These trends will be published by CAEP.

    Beyond the direct CAEP work, QinetiQ provides UK support to the US-based SAE A-21 and E-31 groups which provide noise, emissions and performance modelling methods and emissions measurements methods, aiming to have internationally agreed standards. The challenge here is to develop publicly available emissions calculation methods which are practical in terms of using available data whilst being as close as possible to manufacturers' methods. QinetiQ have played a key role in moving forward the techniques being used in these methods and standards. Significant work is being undertaken on the measurement of particulates. Until these can be reliably measured, it is not possible to frame any useful source regulation relating to the tiny (
    In related work, QinetiQ have produced a report for DfT covering aviation CO2 scenarios to 2050. This work is in support of the UK build up to the Copenhagen Summit at the end of 2009. QinetiQ input to the Climate Change Committee on potential commercial aviation technology improvements through to 2050 has also been published at http://www.theccc.org.uk/reports/aviation-report/supporting-research .


    Aviation Emissions - Understanding and Reducing Environmental Effects
    QinetiQ Work for Dept for Transport AED
    Jan to March 2010

    ICAO CAEP work during the period of this report was dominated by the triennial CAEP/8 meeting in February 2010. QinetiQ were members of the UK/European delegation. During two weeks of intensive negotiation, the largest ever tightening of the CAEP aircraft NOx regulation was agreed along with a production cut off for engines not conforming to the current standard. The meeting also agreed a work programme which includes significant effort on both CO2 and noise regulation - both of which were high on the UK agenda.

    Immediately after the CAEP/8 meeting, work started on the high priority CO2 Standard, with DfT support allowing QinetiQ to provide technical advice and management services to the CEAP emissions and modelling committees. Work is aimed at providing a suitable metric to represent aircraft CO2 emissions set against some measure of productivity. One this metric is established, the remaining elements of a CO2 Standard can be put into place. Such a Standard would sit alongside the many other CO2 reduction measures - technology improvement, operational improvements, alternative fuel sources and market-based measures - aimed at reducing aviation's carbon footprint.

    In addition to the technical work on emissions, on behalf of the DfT, QinetiQ provide management and secretarial services for the CAEP Modelling and Databases Group (formerly the Modelling and Database Task Force). Based on the outline plan developed during the CAEP/8 meeting, a schedule and interface plan has been developed to allow the cost effectiveness analysis of both noise and CO2 standards within the next 3 or 4 years.

    Beyond the direct CAEP work, QinetiQ provides UK support to the US-based SAE E-31 group. This Group is developing emissions measurements methods, aiming to have internationally agreed standards. QinetiQ are leading the work on non-volatile particulate (PM) mass measurement, aimed at producing a method suitable for use in a future PM Standard for aircraft engines. Such a Standard would replace the successful but somewhat outdated smoke number measurement currently used for civil aircraft. Work focuses on selection of affordable but adequate quality methods. Further research is required to ensure both requirements can be adequately met.

    Under the same contracting arrangement, QinetiQ have delivered a study carried out with CAA on implementation of Green Slots concepts at Heathrow. A further study has been delivered on updating the DfT methodology for calculating fuel use and CO2 emissions from UK commercial aviation.