Project: Be-In Be-Out Payment Systems for Public transport

Reference: S0613/V3

Last update: 01/12/2009 10:07:09


The objective of the project is a desk study to explore the scope of applicability that BIBO (Be-In Be-Out) systems have to payments and ticketing in the UK market, the degree of overlap with proximity smartcards as ticketing and payment artefacts, and whether existing UK regulations would allow their introduction. To report on the level of interest in the UK, their compatibility with the ITSO national ticketing standard, the level of security and resistance to fraud that BIBO systems possess, and the protection of data and privacy.

a) A study of existing BIBO schemes currently running across Europe and globally, the lessons learnt and what are the potential improvements for long term sustainability. Has any UK Local Authority attempted BIBO and what level of interest exists across the UK?

b) A study of academic theories relating to BIBO at the macro and detailed scheme implementation level.

c) A study of the extent to which BIBO operates within the bounds of relevant European and International standards and the ITSO specifications. This study would include a gap analysis of the BIBO approach with the ITSO environment and any relevant standards.

d) To report on regulatory, privacy and safety issues, data security and integrity, and technical risks. To include, but not limited to, a comparison study between the security of, and potential for fraud, in a BIBO system against that in paper based and smartcard ticketing systems and the impact current UK fares and ticketing regulations would have if a BIBO system was introduced.

e) To report on the commercial drivers in the Public Transport arena that would need to be met for the introduction of BIBO, and address any conflicts which may occur. Discuss with key stakeholders to understand the potential of BIBO to improve public transport ticketing.


The development of smart cards for seamless travel, through ticketing and e-commerce is an important element in enabling transport choice. Delivering smart card technology allows for the introduction of new added value services to the public. Existing complex ticketing on bus and rail is of concern to the transport industry, users and to Government in promoting accessibility and social inclusion and to facilitate innovative demand management solutions to better manage the transport infrastructure.

The Department has been instrumental in supporting delivery of technical specifications in partnership with industry to ensure interoperability between schemes. The ITSO (Integrated Transport Smartcard Organisation) specification was published in March 2004 and is Crown Copyright. Numerous schemes across the UK are now being deployed under the ITSO banner.

There has been significant development in BIBO (Be-In Be-Out) technology and there have been several attempts across Europe to introduce BIBO technology to the Public Transport arena, with varying forms of success. The Department is keen to understand its relevance to Public Transport in the UK and what impact it could have on Integrated Transport Systems.


Chemnitzer Strasse 48b, Dresden, 01187

Fraunhofer IVI
Zeunerstrasse 38, Dresden, 01069

T.C.L GmbH
Vorsterstrasse 6, Wachendonk, 47669 Ltd
The Matrix, 9 Aldgate High Street, London, EC3N 1AH

Iosis Associates
34 Strathmore Road, Bristol, BS7 9QJ

Contract details

Cost to the Department: £94,435.00

Actual start date: 25 July 2007

Actual completion date: 03 July 2009


Be-In-Be-Out Payment Systemsfor Public Transport
Author: Helge Lorenz
Publication date: 22/10/2009
Final Version 1.3
ISBN: n/a
Source: DfT website
More information:

Summary of results

  1. The evaluation shows that BIBO is feasible and functionally proven;
    however the development of BIBO has not yet been completed.
    For commercial exploitation of BIBO further developments are necessary in the future.
    Therefore also special considerations of the commercial risk and the dissemination potential of BIBO are subject of the study.